In Gateway City regions with an aging and under-skilled labor force, workforce development is an essential ingredient for future economic growth. This report breaks down workforce development to give municipal leaders a better sense of the field. New analysis dissects the demand for these services in Gateway City markets, and best practices for improving participant outcomes. This information is set against the backdrop of changes ushered in by the federal Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA), which took effect last year, as well as broader efforts to reinvent education and career training for a rapidly shifting economy. Report prepared by MassINC Gateway Cities Innovation Institute with assistance from Commonwealth Corporation.